Constitution of socialist federal republic of yugoslavia 1963. The constitution of the socialist federal republic of. Bosnia and herzegovinas constitution of 1995 with amendments. With 406 original articles, the 1974 constitution was one of the longest constitutions in the world. It provides a balanced understanding of the common hopes and fears which held its ethnic mosaic together, and the ethnic con. Constitution of the republic of serbia official gazette of the rs no. Yugoslavia s national assembly passes amendments allowing serbia to change its constitution. Article 17 the federal republic of yugoslavia shall confer yugoslav citizenship on its inhabitants. Why did yugoslavia dissintegrate and in a violent way. Some demonstrations turned violent and police and army troops were c alled in to quell them, resulting in several deaths.
The socialist federal republic of yugoslavia sfry, also known as sfr yugoslavia or simply yugoslavia, was a country located in central and southeastern europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of world war ii until its dissolution in 1992 amid the yugoslav wars. Arhiv jugoslavije constitution of the fpry, january 31, 1946. Constitution of the republic of serbia official gazette of the rs. Basic assumptions of the system changes implemented in the seventies are contained in the new constitution of yugoslavia which was approved by the parlament in 1974. The constitution of 1974 gave yugoslav republican elites the form and the substance of national.
Constitution of yugoslavia 1963 wikisource, the free online library. Why yugoslavia failed by dejan guzina could yugoslavia have been kept from breaking up by a different form of federal system. In the article there are analyzed those system changes which directly determine. Before tito came into power, yugoslavia experienced a variety of governmental. We will never know, but the structure it had under titos yugoslav constitution of 1974 laid the groundwork for conflict and separation. Background and summary began to fall apart in yugoslavia. Serbian nationalism and the origins of the yugoslav crisis. After titos death on 4 may 1980, ethnic tensions grew in yugoslavia. The case of yugoslavia angeliki sotiropoulou ma in contemporary european studies, euromaster, university of bath introduction in the aftermath of the cold war, processes of democratization in some countries have revealed old ethnic, religious and cultural differences that have. Ustav socijalisticke federativne republike jugoslavije. In the early 1990s, fighting between ethnic groups and the collapse of. Zmiany systemowe realizowane w jugoslawii po roku 1974. Constitution of the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia 21 feb 1974 author. Tito being the leader of yugoslavia used this to his advantage.
A prime early example of this occurred during the kosovo issue with his emphasis on the serbian role over the centuries as victim of a variety of aggressors. If the republican constitution is at variance with the constitution of yugoslavia, the constitution of yugoslavia shall be binding. The state is most commonly referred to by this last full name socialist federal republic of yugoslavia, which it. However, by the time of the 1974, the autonomous provinces had defacto, but. Fools crusade, yugoslavia, nato and western delusions. The socialist federal republic o yugoslavie sfr yugoslavie or sfry wis the yugoslav state that existit frae its foondation in the eftermath o warld war ii till its dissolution in 1992 amid the yugoslav wars. Tito died in 1980, and tensions between serbs and ethnic albanians within kosovo intensified. In the ambiguity surrounding the kosovo problem, hardliners organized a putsch in serbias communist party in 1987, bringing the most conservative. There was war again in 1999 as kosovo agitated for independence, and a change in leadership in 2000, when milosevic was finally removed from power, saw yugoslavia gain wider international acceptance again. United states constitution is ratified by the thirteen original colonies. In 1945, king peter ii was officially deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, and accordingly renamed federal peoples republic of yugoslavia fpr yugoslavia or fpry, with the constitution coming into force in 1946. Yugoslavias 1974 constitution is a perfect example of this paradox. Capping efforts since 1966 to increase kosovos rights within yugoslavia, the new constitution gave. Socialist federal republic of yugoslavia project gutenberg.
At times the status of the yugoslav constitution has been extra2 in yugoslavia, the role of the constitution. In 1974 the constitution was changed making tito president for life. Yugoslaviaa now nonexistent countryflourished under the influential leadership of josip broz tito 18921980. However, with the exception of the serbs, republican and national representation were functional equivalents. Crs report for congress federation of american scientists. The yugoslav constitution of 1974 brought very significant changes in the whole state organization of yugoslavia and expressed roughly the then prevailing opinions, as well as the desire of each people to lead. Constitution of the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia 21 feb.
Croatia and slovenia unrecognized the republic of croatia and the republic of slovenia were two of the six republics of the sfry. Introduction yugoslavia is a singularly unique nation. The socialist federal republic of yugoslavia comprises the socialist republics of bosnia and herzegovina, croatia, macedonia, montenegro, serbia and slovenia. Although many things had taken place since the republic declared its independence and dropped the term socialist from its name, it had not managed to formally overhaul. The solutions adopted under the 1967, 1968 and 1971 amendments were entered into the new constitution. May 08, 20 for those interested in how nato ended up going to war against yugoslavia, it could be very useful to read the book fools crusade, yugoslavia, nato and western delusions from 2002 written by diana johnstone. The constitution of the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia. Essentially, titos death marked the end of the last vestiges of a strong central government in yugoslavia. Yugoslavia yugoslavia was a country in europe from 1918 to 2003.
Instead, the proposal adamantly defended the principle of consensus and the rights to selfdetermination established in the 1974 constitution. This paper is dedicated to the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia sfr yugoslavia, hereafter yugoslavia, 2 a country that was known for its unique system of market socialism. In 1974, major reforms to yugoslavia s constitution occurred. The kosovo phase the autonomous province of kosovo was linked loosely to serbia by titos 1974 constitution. In 1945, the country became the federal peoples republic of yugoslavia fpr yugoslavia, fpry, with the constitution coming into force in 1946 and in 1963 the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia sfr yugoslavia, sfry. The constitutional crisis in yugoslavia and the international law of. On june 25, 1991 the yugoslav republics of slovenia 2 and croatia3 formally. It first attracted the attention of international businesspersons and lawyers when, in 1967, it became the first socialist nation to enact legislation permitting foreign. Arhiv jugoslavije the constitution of the sfry, february 21. It was composed of individual communist parties from each constituent republic. As a result, even before the collapse of east european communism in late 1989, yugoslavia had begun the task of seriously reforming a failed socialist system. The country brought together the various ethnic groups of the region under one government.
It was prompted by yet another attempt of the communist old guard, led by tito and his most trusted ideological ally, edvard kardelj, to solve the twin problems of the early 1970s. Within a year the federal system will no longer exist. Constitution of sfr yugoslavia, published by the secretariat of the federal assembly information service begrade. Tied as it was to his dominating presence, many wondered if real change in the nation could only come about through titos deathor would his death merely herald the death of yugoslavia. In 1974 yugoslavia promulgated its third postwar constitution. At times the status of the yugoslav constitution has been extra2 in yugoslavia, the role of the constitution as a summary of laws may be par. The rise and fall of yugoslavia in the last century, one nation achieved an incredible rise to power and devastating collapse in the span of mere decades. After world war ii 19391945, yugoslavia became a communist country. Among the changes was the controversial internal division of serbia, which created two autonomous provinces within it, vojvodina and kosovo. The peculiar feature of the document was the presence of many references to europe and the european community with the absence of any references to yugoslavia.
With the election of george bush as president in 1988, u. The first constitution of the fpry was unanimously declared at the joint session of both chambers of the constitutional assembly. Socialist federal republic of yugoslavia wikipedia. The constitution of the socialist federative republic of yugoslavia, february 21, 1974 the constitution was promulgated at the session of the council of nationalities of the federal assembly. With the new constitution, it placed restrictions thus making it difficult for any state or one person to take over even after titos death. Despite retaining a communist oneparty political regime throughout its existence 1945 1991, yugoslavia was the first socialist country to attempt farreaching economic reforms. Arhiv jugoslavije the constitution of the sfry, february. From the croatian crisis to the 1974 constitution 305 from halfmarket to contractual economy 315 foreign policy and the debt crisis, 19791985 321 the failure of federal leadership and economic retreat, 19861988 327 11 ethnic politics and the end of yugoslavia 332 social strains and regional relations 333 new leaders and new politics 345. The 1974 yugoslav constitution was the fourth and final constitution of the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia. With the passing of the yugoslav constitution in 1974, kosovo gained the status of a socialist autonomous province within serbia. A state that withered away examines the emergence, implementation, crisis, and the breakdown of the fourth kardeljs constitutive concept of yugoslavia 19741990, and relations between antistatist ideology of selfmanagement and the actual collapse of state institutions. The rise and fall of market socialism in yugoslavia doc. On march 6, 1974 the secretary general registered a request for arbitration by an italian company against the govern ment of lvory coast.
In 1974, the communist regime formed a new constitution. Yugoslavia has been most unfortunate in the leadership of the two main republics. Includes text of a report on the final draft of the constitution by mijalko todorovic, president of the federal assembly and chairman of its joint constitutional commission. The 1953 law effectively abolished the chamber of nationalities by merging it. In 1945, the country became the federal peoples republic of yugoslavia fpr yugoslavia, fpry, with the constitution coming into force in 1946 7 and in 1963 the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia sfr yugoslavia, sfry. This particularly refers to the part on the role and authority of executive bodies of power. Under the 1974 constitution, each of the six republics of slovenia, croatia, bosnia and herzegovina, serbia, montenegro, and macedonia, as well as the two autonomous provinces of kosovo and vojvodina, which. A yugoslav citizen shall be simultaneously a citizen of one of its member republics. Jan 29, 2019 the bloody wars, filled with ethnic cleansing, were mostly over by the end of 1995, leaving serbia and montenegro as a rump yugoslavia. It was made on the model of the 1936 soviet constitution stalins constitution. In a solemn manner, we approve the constitution of the republic of kosovo. The constitution of the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia was amended in 1963 and 1974. Titos yugoslavia robert edward niebuhr supervised by larry wolff titoist yugoslaviathe multiethnic state rising out of the chaos of world war iiis a particularly interesting setting to examine the integrity of the modern nationstate. Though the 1974 constitution reduced the power of the federal government, titos authority substituted for this weakness until his death in 1980.
Yugoslav constitution 1974 contains certain direct provisions on education that are applicable thoughout yugoslavia. The changes are based on an endorsement by serbias assembly of a working group report that found the 1974 yugoslav constitution was unconstitutional in allowing the socialist autonomous provinces of kosovo and vojvodina to block amendments to the serb constitution and that the 1974 constitution. Constitution of the federal republic of yugoslavia refworld. This constitution stripped kosovo and vojvodina of their autonomous status within serbia, and belgrade assumed direct rule in kosovo and vojvodina. The federal republic of yugoslavia shall be founded on the rule of law. Create a book download as pdf download as epub download as mobi.
In 1981, albanian students organized protests seeking to make kosovo a republic within yugoslavia. Key judgments the old yugoslav federation is coming to an end because the reservoir of political will holding yugoslavia together is gone. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name socialist federal republic of yugoslavia was. Yugoslavia as history twice there was a country second edition yugoslavia as history is the. Socialist federal republic of yugoslavia infogalactic. On november 29, 1988, a massive set of constitutional. Bosnia and herzegovinas constitution of 1995 with amendments through 2009. Yugoslavia a now nonexistent countryflourished under the influential leadership of josip broz tito 18921980. The territory of the socialist federal republic of yugoslavia is unified, consisting of the territories of the socialist republics. After the rule of the ottoman turks, which lasted until 1878 and the austrohungarian empire, the first constitution for bosnia and herzegovina was promulgated and first elections were held in 1910.
The state is most commonly referred to by this last full name socialist federal republic of yugoslavia, which it held. Facts the powder keg of europe again has a short fuse as the permanence of yugoslavia is threatened by civil war. Each of these autonomous provinces had voting power equal to that of the republics, but retroactively they participated in serbian decision. It came into effect on 21 february 1974 with 406 original articles, the 1974 constitution was one of the longest constitutions in the world. Yugoslavias national assembly passes amendments allowing serbia to change its constitution. All education is to be marxist in its orientation and serve yugoslav economic and social objectives.
If republican law is not in accord with federal law, federal law shall be binding, pending the decision of the constitutional court of yugoslavia. Constitution of yugoslavia 1963 wikisource, the free. Yugoslavias numerous constitutional arrangements during the postworld war. An appreciation of this peculiar blend of instrumentalism. The rise and fall of yugoslavia portland state university. Serbian hardliners main interpretation of the serbian tragedy in kosovo was that ethnic albanians had gained control through yugoslavia s 1974 constitution, and that the only way to stop the ethnic cleansing of serbs in kosovo was to reinstate serbian domination there. The territory now occupied by bosnia and herzegovina was captured by slavs, serbs, and croats in the sixth and seventh centuries.7 1331 1223 1596 340 1281 748 797 332 1527 428 1090 655 154 79 1484 338 344 1152 219 1273 504 1117 1101 370 1183 52 1313 315 825 1263 241 756 1223 1231 1000 982 370 775 1169 11 346 454 623 1118 645 620 875